6 December 1917 The Senate of the Grand Duchy of Finland declares Finland an independent republic. Helsinki is the capital of the new-born Republic.
In 1894, Emperor NIcholas II issues a solemn affirmation that Finland’s autonomous status as Grand Duchy and its Constitution would be respected and upheld under his rule. By 1899, however, he was prepared to put his signature to the February Manifesto calling for an end to Finnish autonomy with its independent legislature, central bureaus and armed forces. Thousands of Finns gathered in Helsinki to protest. Nicholas II had lost the respect of his Finish subjects, and earned the epithet “the perjurous Emperor”.
Nicholas II relinquishes power in Russia, nor did Finns remain loyal to him. Consequently, on 6 December 1917 the Senate declared Finland an independent republic, and Helsinki its capital. Revolutionary Russia officially recognized Finland some weeks later, on 31 December. General Gustaf Mannerheim was named Regent of the Republic of Finland on 12 December 1918, in which capacity he confirmed Finland to be a parliamentary republic early the following year.